עדכונים מהבלוגהכניסו את כתובת המייל לקבלת עידכונים מהבלוג:
By: Tali and Uri Mayer Chissick
In one of the coldest nights this year, a snow storm in Jerusalem and freezing cold outside, our home-cook and the photographer Assaf spent a night baking sourdough breads in Klil in Galilee, with Anomarel Ogen. Anomarel is one of a dying species of craftsmen who consider their craft as a mission, and do it with a lot of knowledge and love. He told us that in the bakers’ guild in England and France, apprenticeship lasted seven years; however, very few people spend that long nowadays learning their craft. When the word ‘craftsman’ is mentioned, Anomarel protests and says that it is probably the other way round: it is the man of the craft, not the craft of the man. Whichever way – he is an artisan in his field. He knows every detail of his craft, whether physical, theoretical or scientific.
Baking is an accurate science, based on exact weights and quantities; when baking many loafs (by hand!) it is easy to make mistakes. However, our guests and the late hours did not confuse Anamorel. He developed a special kneading method, based on effortless movements coming from the ‘soft’ martial-arts like the Chi Kong; thus he looks like a dancer while kneading and can prepare the dough for 120 loafs in one night.
He sees the kneading movement as an expression of the internal movement, which is more important. When asked for the instructions for the sourdough bread that he is making – he can’t really say what part of the quality of the bread comes from the recipe, and what part is a result of the process. He enjoys explaining that bread baking demands balance and integration between the intelligence of the heart and the brain. The quality of the ingredients and the baking tools are also of great importance. He uses organic whole-wheat flour of the best quality, and bakes in a stone oven built by an expert stonemason. Later he remarks that in the end, however much you try, sometimes the bread does not come out as it should, and you don’t know why.
In Semitic languages the root of the word ‘bread’ (ל.ח.מ) represents the most important food. In Arabic it means ‘meat’ as the language developed in nomad societies. In the Mecca area it is mutton. In Hebrew, used in the agricultural areas in Israel, it means wheat bread. In his article The Management of Health, Maimonides wrote that the only proper use of wheat is baking bread from seeds that ripened and did not get dry, whole wheat not sieved, using sourdough and a lot of kneading, and adding salt modestly. He further explains that doctors recommend it as the best food, but any other food made of wheat (like cakes, noodles etc.) is not recommended. Thus we can say that sourdough bread is the best of the dough products.
Sourdough bread, made of sourdough without yeast, is the first bread made by man. The natural process is based on fermentation of dough made of flour, water and salt. The dry or wet yeasts that we know and are used widely to make bread are a product of a relatively late period and are produced by industries. The reason why they are used is their efficient and quick action, but their strength and their quantity in the bread may result in problems in our digestive system. It is known, for instance, that women with ‘candida’ or children who suffer from worms are told to avoid yeast. The industrial yeast in the bread can attack the layer of good germs in our intestines and cause trouble in the digestive process. The sourdough is much gentler. In addition, similar to the process of sprouting cereals and pulses, where elements that that disturb the digestion are broken down, here too the harmful ingredients are broken down. The longer the fermentation – the healthier is the mixture and the vitamins and minerals in the flour are more readily available.
The making of sourdough bread is not an easy job, (we promise to produce an easier version separately) but it is definitely addicting, and one also develops a commitment to the ‘lively’ mixture waiting in the fridge!
Sourdough Bread from A to Z
One of the main advantages of Anomarel’s recipe is the use of dry sourdough. There is no diluted mixture that needs nurturing every day. Our sourdough is a piece of dough taken out of the bread dough and kept for next time in the fridge.
The preparation has two main stages: the preparation of the sourdough (which is one off), and the preparation of the bread. Later you will find instructions on how to combine them.
It is important to understand that the quality of the bread depends on many elements, like the quality of the flour, the season, and more. All can affect the swelling. Therefore, it is also a question of trial and error.
Stage one – The preparation of the sourdough
Before you start: it is important to realize that it does not always work. If so – try again. And if you find it too demanding – you can always find somebody that will give you a piece of his/her dough, thus you can go straight to the second stage.
This process takes 6 days, in room temperature, although the optimal temperature is 28 degrees centigrade.
50g Organic whole wheat flour (preferably millstone ground)
50 ml water
Cover with material or cling film. Stir twice during the day for about a minute with a wooden spoon or by hand).
Add 100g flour and 100ml water, mix well and cover. Mix again twice during the day, for 1 minute, with a wooden spoon or with your hands.
Mix 3 times during the day.
Add 200g flour and 200ml water, mix well and cover. Mix again twice during the day.
Mix 3 times during the day.
The sour dough is ready. As the process used here, called Pate Fermante, is different from the process used in bakeries, it is advisable to prepare the bread at this stage. Start at the second stage in the sour bread instructions. Remember: the mixture you have prepared is enough for 2 loafs!
Stage two – Sourdough bread
For 1 loaf (weighing 500-700g).
40-80g sour yeast mixture
400ml water at room temperature
500g organic whole flour (preferably local, fresh millstone ground)
1 tablespoon (12.5g) natural or organic sea salt
1. Put 130ml water in a bowl.
2. Add the sour dough mixture and crumble it with your hands in the water.
3. Add part of the flour gradually and mix to a smooth mixture. Leave for 4 minutes.
4. Repeat this last stage and leave again for 4 minutes.
5. Add the remaining flour gradually, until pliable (elastic) dough is formed.
6. Cover the bowl with a wet cloth and let it rest for 6-10 hours.
The dough should be pliable, not sticky and not too dry. The moisture helps the sour yeast to ferment.
1. Add the remaining water and the salt and prepare the dough thus:
2. Add a 1/3 of the remaining flour, mix well and wait 5 minutes.
3. Add another 1/3 and repeat.
4. Add the rest of the flour and knead to create an elastic dough. Cover again and let it rest for 2-3 hours.
Now take out a portion of the dough, put in a well-floured jar and put in the fridge for next time (it will hold for a month).
1. Knead the dough a little, and shape the loaf. Put on a floured board for 2 hours, covered with cloth.
2. Put on an oven tray on a baking sheet. You may also put semolina on the tray to prevent sticking.
3. Put in a preheated oven at 250 degrees (or the hottest temperature in your oven). Don’t use turbo!
4.Bake for 40 minutes.
It is advisable to let the bread rest for 5 hours (rye bread should rest for 24 hours) before cutting into it..